Here is a special summary >United Kingdom Bioclimatic Design<

The number of UK Met stations analysed 1987-2020 were four-hundred and seven ( n=407 )

suggested HVAC packge abrev number n
Air-source is fine ASHP ( Hp __ ) n=48
Icy GSHP or gas or wood ( Gs __ ) n=348
Ventilation cooling with GSHP ( Gs Vt ) n=1
Ventilation cooling with ASHP ( Hp Vt ) n=1
Insufficient data NO recommendation ( __ __ ) n=9

looking closer at UK locations that need cooling at least 3 days per year on average

HVAC d/y latitude longitude elev. Place with URL WMOstn period
GsVt 14 51.283°, -0.767° 72 m FARNBOROUGH (MIL) 37660 1994-1995
Gs__ 10 51.894°, -2.167° 31 m GLOUCESTERSHIRE 36333 1992-2020
Hp__ 8 47.5° , -8.5° 0 m BUOY 62163 / BRITTANY 995380 1990-2008
Gs__ 8 52.072°, -0.617° 109 m CRANFIELD 35573 1992-2020
Gs__ 7 52.205°, 0.175° 14 m CAMBRIDGE 35715 1987-2020
Gs__ 5 52.37° , -1.48° 81 m COVENTRY 35413 1992-2016
Gs__ 5 51.505°, 0.055° 6 m CITY 37683 1989-2020
Gs__ 7 51.683°, -0.417° 102 m LEAVESDEN 37815 1988-1991
Gs__ 5 51.2° , 0.783° 91 m CHARING 37850 1990-2001
Gs__ 5 50.817°, -0.267° 18 m SHOREHAM-BY-SEA 38793 1989-1989
Gs__ 4 53.567°, 0.117° 7 m SPURN HEAD (POINT) 33961 2018-2020
Gs__ 4 51.667°, 1.1° 8 m THAMES TOWER (AUT) 36950 1987-1998
Gs__ 4 51.331°, 0.033° 182 m BIGGIN HILL 37663 1989-2020
Gs__ 4 51.5° , -0.117° 5 m ST JAMES PARK 37700 2010-2020
Gs__ 3 51.478°, -0.461° 25 m HEATHROW 37720 1987-2020
Gs__ 3 51.5° , -0.117° 39 m LONDON WEA CENTER 37790 1993-2009
Gs__ 3 50.933°, 0.6° 82 m BREDE 38810 1990-2001


a predisposition, preference, or bias

18th century: from French prédilection, from Latin praedilect- ‘preferred’, from the verb praediligere, from prae ‘in advance’ + diligere ‘to select’.

Global and local bioclimatic predilections for rebalancing the heating and cooling of buildings

Eric Laurentius Peterson

Visiting Research Fellow, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom Climatic Information Technical Committee TC4.2, American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air-conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, GA, USA Received 1 February 2022, Revised 22 March 2022, Accepted 7 April 2022, Available online 9 April 2022, Version of Record 29 April 2022. Energy and Buildings Volume 266, 1 July 2022, 112088

DOI 10.1016/j.enbuild.2022.112088

Corresponding author

Graphical Abstract

Graphical abstract

code Description code Description
__Ac cooling only air-conditioning GsAc combustion heater AND air-conditioning (or reverse-cycle ground-source)
__Ev direct evaporative cooling GsEv combustion heater AND direct evaporative cooler
__Vt forced ventilation GsVt combustion heater AND forced ventilation cooling
__ entirely passive comfort would be sufficient Gs__ ground-source or combustion heating
Hp__ air-source heat pump (ASHP) Hu__ humidification only
HpVt ASHP AND forced ventilation cooling HuVt humidifier AND forced ventilation cooling
HpEv ASHP AND direct evaporative cooler HuEv humidifier AND direct evaporative cooler
HpAc reverse-cyle air-source year-round HuAc humidifier AND air-conditioner

You may find access to a version of “RESULTSout_1987-2020.csv” with a psychrometric chart of the places you are interested in >right here<. There are n=15,293 psychrometric charts, while locations without humidity observations could not be plotted, yielding a 404 error.


The information or advise contained in this website is intended for use only by persons who have had adequate technical training in the field of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system design. This website has been compiled as an aid only and the information or advice should be verified before it is put to use by any person. The user should also establish the applicability of the information or advice in relation to any specific circumstances. While the information or advise is believed to be correct, the author Eric Laurentius Peterson, and his employer The University of Leeds, disclaim responsibility for any inaccuracies contained within the document including those due to any negligence in the preparation and publication of this website. Those using this website are advised that it was developed as a repository of supporting on-line material in relation to the paper published in the peer-reviewed journal Energy and Buildings. Users of this website are asked to read the paper, DOI 10.1016/j.enbuild.2022.112088. Please email if you have difficulties or concerns.


• Access to air-conditioned shelter was often indispensable between 20°S and 39°N and below 500 m.

• Reverse-cycle air-source heat-pump/air-conditioning was reasonable for 72% of the population.

• Stationary heating and cooling demands were found where 19% of population dwelt.

• Summer cooling demand generally increased while winter heating demand decreased.

• Heating and cooling demands both increased in some mid-latitude continental areas.

• Over 30% of population dwelt where heating demand increased.

• While almost 65% dwelt where cooling demand increased.


Air-conditioning relies on electricity that isn’t ubiquitous while policies encourage passive alternatives —yet cooling really should respond to occupants’ distress. Here I show where passive measures have been sufficient for comfort and identify local predilections for rebalancing demand between heating and cooling —apportioned by population neighboring meteorological stations. Access to air-conditioned shelter has been occasionally indispensable for 21% of population —generally between 20°S and 39°N and below 500 m elevation. Meanwhile reverse-cycle air-source heat-pump/air-conditioning has been a reasonable expectation for 72% of the population. Refocusing on 9493 locations with ≥ 14 years of daily observations, stationary heating and cooling demands were found where 19% of population dwelt. Otherwise, summer cooling demand generally increased while winter heating demand decreased —except some mid-latitude continental areas demonstrated a predilection for both heating and cooling demands to increase. Over 30% of population dwelt where heating demand increased, while almost 65% dwelt where cooling demand increased. To estimate which HVAC package is locally appropriate, refer to nearby comparable meteorological stations detailed in the file “RESULTSout_1987-2020.csv” (n = 16,582 records) that can be downloaded at University of Leeds but beware of microclimatic variability in urban heat islands.

abv explanation
YsD Yellow-flag or worse outdoor stress days (average per annum) based on daily maximum wetbulb globe temperature in shade ≥ 29.4°C
WsD White-flag or worse outdoor stress days (average per annum) based on daily maximum wetbulb globe temperature in shade ≥ 25.6°C
DXD Average days per annum that direct expansion air-conditioning is desirable based upon mean daily outdoor conditions

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